It is used in the research, diagnosis, and treatment monitoring of different types of cancers such as leukemia and infectious diseases caused by HIV. Typically, cells from a blood sample are labeled with fluorescent reagents then the flow cytometer uses a combination of fluidics, lasers and detectors to count (and sort) the specific type of immune cells. Imaging cytometry is a fairly recent innovation that incorporates additional microscopy capabilities onto the flow cytometer allowing pictures to be taken of cells in the fluid stream.
Fluorescent dyes are used to illuminate specific cells (or specific internal components of a cell) so they can be better analyzed for form and function
An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a plate-based immunoassay in which enzymes conjugated to antibodies are used to catalyze a reaction with a substrate that results in the production of a measurable product.
It is also a technology in which organic dyes or inorganic materials such as gold nanorods are excited with a laser, resulting in the release of heat that is propagated through tissue as an acoustic wave. This wave can then be detected and analyzed with ultrasound instrumentation creating an ultrasound image with much greater resolution similar to microscopy but much deeper into tissue.
It is also a collection of techniques used to analyse biological markers in the genome and proteome—the individual's genetic code and how their cells express their genes as proteins—by applying molecular biology to medical testing.
After exposure to the appropriate wavelength of light, these agents generate reactive oxygen species that then kill cells nearby. PDT is often used for the treatment of many different skin conditions and esophageal and certain types of lung cancers.
It also refers to the development of molecular diagnostic tests and targeted therapeutics in an interdependent, collaborative manner with the goals of individualizing treatment by targeting therapy to an individual's’ specific disease subtype and genetic profile.
In medicine, such particles are used for development of contrast reagents for imaging and as carriers for gene and drug delivery. Ultrafine particles are the same as nanoparticles and between 1 and 100 nanometers in size, fine particles are sized between 100 and 2,500 nanometers, and coarse particles cover a range between 2,500 and 10,000 nanometers. Scientific research on nanoparticles is intense as they have many potential applications in medicine, physics, optics, and electronics.
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